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Laser Capture Microdissection. Moreover, the compiler of the Mirabilia prefixed a place-name to every item he included, in order to give a spurious impression of leaming, even where this distorted the point he was making. It may be that Theophrastus himself combined the two types of material.
Differences among animals according to place are the theme of HA 8. See above n. Joachim 21; Flashar ; Huby n. It is nev- ertheless more likely, as Flashar says, that Theophrastus repeated the observation in On Differences According to Place as a short parallel than that the compiler of the Mirabilia has switched from one Theophrastean source to another and back again.
See below, on Mirabilia 83, reporting the saying that in Crete there are no wolves, bears or snakes because it is where Zeus was bom cf. At HP 9. Theophrastus clearly discussed both differences due to environment especially heat and cold; cf. His Same Kvnd —Joachim regarded these as two different works, cf. Amigues p. In HP 2. Flashar 74, Battegazzore Some other points not explicidy attributed to Theophrastus by Aelian are confirmed as his by other sources see Further below.
See especially below on Emout, in the Bude edition [Pline Vancien, vol. Alexander of Myndus, cited by Aelian 5. They later moved westwards to modem Poland and Hungary. Aelian or his source may be combining material from different Theophrastean treatises; or Theophrastus may have included the same observation in more than one work.
Gossen, RE 13A.
However, Walter Cockle points out to me that a reference by Theophrastus to Ptolemy Philadelphus before he became king could have been rephrased later in its transmission in terms of the name by which he was subsequendy known. Given his scientific interests it does not seem inconceivable that curiosities could have been sent to him even before he became king. The silent frogs in Cyrene along with those in Seriphus: , below are also reported by Apostolius, Centuriae 4. Flashar , who interprets these frogs as a particular species silent in summer, Rana temporaria.
Kroll 10 suggests that the placing of the silent frogs in Macedonia rather than Cyrene is a slip by Pliny, and argues that the parallel between Pliny and the Mirabilia is to be explained by a common use of Theophrastus. There was however a well-known story that cicadas were silent in the territory of Rhegium in Southern Italy but vocal in that of Locri; and this Large-homed oxen in Paeonia are reported in Mirabilia from Theopompus, according to Flashar  , but the size is much less four choai.
Rose ; Flashar Aelian himself confirms that Theophrastus connected the sound of cicadas with heat, at lines below. There was also a miraculous explanation that the cicadas were silenced by Heracles; Aelian does not mention this in our text, but his reference is very much in passing in any case. See above, at n. Strabo 6. Emout and R. Similarly Antigonus 3 attributed to Theophrastus by Joachim  9 and Compare below, lines Joachim 9 indeed attributes this account to Theophrastus, pointing out that Diodorus Siculus 4.
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However, Antigonus 1, where Timaeus is also cited, refers to silence rather than disappearance. Diogenianus Cent. In the cases both of the frogs at Seriphus and of those on Pierus it is ciear that the environment is the cause of the phenomenon, since removal of the creatures elsewhere makes them vocal and others when imported become silent. Whether Theophrastus himself mentioned the mythological explanation is uncertain; it may be that Aelian or his source has introduced the story and then used Theophrastus to reject it.
See also above, on Pollux Onomasticon 5. The sounds made by birds of the same type do as a matter of fact vary in different geographical regions, but the very considerable difference indicated In Aelian the silent pigs in Macedonia, the silent cicadas, and the venomous spider; in the Mirabilia the solid-hoofed pigs, fertile mules and poplars in Crete. Battegazzore takes it in the latter sense, and argues that Theophrastus used the mythical story for rhetorical purposes, as the starting-point of his discussion.
Thompson is right to explain the difference here as one of species, the partridge proper to Greece Perdix graeca — Perdix saxatilis auctt. The question is made more complex, however, by other reports, not naming Theophrastus, which assert that partridges do not fly across the border from Boeotia to Attica, or that if they do they are distinguished by their different sound.
However, Joachim argued that there were originally two reports both deriving from Theophrastus, one refer- ring to Corydallus and the other to Boeotia, and that the reference to sound, absent from the Pliny passage, has been added to the re- port concerning Boeotia by Athenaeus through a confusion with our passage.
Corydallus was due west of Athens, on the coast opposite Salamis and at the Southern end of Mount Aigaleos— i. Pline rancien vol. Rackham, , second ed. Rose derives this from Theophrastus.
The context in Athenaeus however suggests a religious tradition rather than a context of zoo- logical observation. But since the peacock was commonly regarded as Indian or Persian, the report attributed to Theophrastus remains strange. Both in Aelian Bisaltia p. Kroll also derives from Theophrastus the reference at Pliny As Aristode in HA and Pliny here but not the Mirabilia note, the creature in question is not in fact a mule at ali.
Flashar identifies it as Equus hemionus or Equus onager. Ernout and R. Pepin, Pline Vancien , vol. This comes in Pliny at the end of a series of items Regenbogen  Pliny mentions creatures that eat poisonous ones and so become poisonous themselves, and this prompts the present remark about diet, which is stricdy a digression. Herodotus 5. Strabo, Strabo also mentions the Ichthyophagi in the general context of the nature of sub-tropica! Capelle, RE For Plutarch, Alexander 66, reports that the army in passing through this region found the meat of sheep fed on fish unpleasant.
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Regenbogen 7. Capelle Hughes See above, no. There is and crops from the point of view of a military leader planning campaigns than from that of a botanist, and after a review of several possible informants suggests xxix that Theophrastus 5 source for botanical information on the coast of Gedrosia was one Stroebus, a protege of the executed Callisthenes.
The information in the present text could have come from the naval contingent; but see further below. That Gedrosia is like the country of the Ichthyophagi is noted by Strabo For the relation of this text to the work On Creatures produced spontaneously attributed to Theophrastus by Diogenes Laertius see above on no.
Doctrine Photius makes it ciear that Theophrastus was concerned to distin- guish between creatures that are produced spontaneously in large numbers in favourable circumstances, and others which, though not spontaneously generated, appear in large numbers because a change of climate or the nature of a region is particularly favourable to them. On spontaneous generation see below, ; also Theophrastus also discusses the ways in which swarming creatures are destroyed, whether by climate, disease, or human agency, but does not seem to have considered population crashes due to exhaustion of the food supply; see below on A Reference to the nuisance caused by swarming creatures is the aspect stressed, along with emphasis on the marvellous, in the reports in B-C.
For a list of these summaries and some remarks on their general character, in so far as it can be controlled by comparison with those works that also survive in MSS of Theophrastus, see above on For similar stories cf. Athenaeus 8. Hesychius s. Augustine indeed believed that the earth itself generated frogs when moist- ened by the rain Against Faustus 6.
For the hostility between storks and snakes cf.
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Plutarch Table Talk 8. Accord- ing to Aristode only rain can control them, foxes and ferrets con- trast 48 here not being able to keep up with the rate at which they reproduce. Jerboas are also mentioned at HA 8. BT vol. Lambros xvi. Keller 2. Jackdaws are described as attacking locusts in Lemnos by Plutarch loc.
Flashar accepts both and of our present text as Theophrastean, and argues that Aelian, who has more detail on the present item than does the Mirabilia , is dependent on Theophrastus, even if indirecdy, rather than on the Mirabilia.
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