During periods of sexual arousal, the vagina receives the penis and the semen.
The sperm cells in the semen pass through the cervix and uterus into the fallopian tubes, where fertilization takes place. In the human female, egg cell production begins before birth, when about 2 million primitive cells known as oogonia accumulate in the ovaries. These oogonia are formed in the early stages of meiosis. After the age of puberty, the oogonia develop into primary oocytes and then into egg cells at a rate of one per month.
Frontiers in Reproduction: Molecular and Cellular Concepts and Applications
Egg cell production occurs by the process of meiosis. The egg cells develop within the ovary in a cluster of cells called the Graafian follicle, which secretes the female hormone estrogen that regulates the development of secondary female characteristics. Egg cell development within the follicle requires approximately 14 days. The development is controlled by two hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH. Both hormones are secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. During the 14 days of egg cell development, the endometrium increases its supply of blood and nutrients in anticipation of a fertilized egg cell.
Molecular actions of Vitamin D in reproductive cell biology
Edited by MCP Associate Editor Tim Karr of the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, the issue showcases the versatility and multiplicity of proteomic technologies for analysis of protein abundance, post-translational modifications, protein—protein interactions and subcellular localization in reproduction. According to Karr, proteomic approaches are particularly well-suited to studying reproductive biology.
Sperm are known to transmit packaged RNAs, but compared with somatic cells, sperm are transcriptionally inactive, further highlighting the importance of protein interactions. Proteomics is also important in the study of interactions between the male ejaculate and the female reproductive tract. There is little experimental evidence that gene expression or other gene—gene interactions play a major role once the ejaculate is delivered to the reproductive tract.
The special issue dives into a few major themes in reproductive biology. A series of papers investigates how proteomes of reproductive cells change throughout the reproductive processes, such as spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and capacitation, and oocyte activation. Human fertility also is explored in depth in this special issue.
A few studies delineate the proteomes of infertile sperm and sperm that undergo different abstinence periods.
Therefore, small molecule modulators of SRCs' activity could be applied in the future in the treatment of many diseases of the female reproductive system. R01 HD R01 CA Read Article at publisher's site.
greeninmodab.tk How does Europe PMC derive its citations network? Protein Interactions.
Protein Families. Nucleotide Sequences. Functional Genomics Experiments. Protein Structures.
Related Molecular Biology of the Female Reproductive System
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