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Handbook of Thermoplastic Piping System Design by Thomas Sixsmith and Reinhard Hanselka - AbeBooks
Use only one booster pump in series with the primary pump in any one circuit. A piping network may consist of a primary system and one or more secondary systems arranged in a series with the primary system. The primary pumping station consists of six pumps arranged in a 3-parallel x 2-series system. All the pumps in the pumping station are identical in type and size. This is recommended design. The flow in each pump is, therefore, one-third or the total system flow and the pressure head for each pump is one-half of the required system head. The entire pumping station is treated as a single pressure source with a first supply S section leaving the system and a last return R section entering the system.
All the other sections in the pumping station are identified as X sections that must be excluded from the network analysis. The piping network identification information from Fig. This information is rearranged and presented in Fig.
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This is the typical circuit arrangement when there are no booster pumps. Note that the circuit that passes through the terminal equipment having the label TE-6 does not have a booster pump. That entire circuit becomes a part of the primary system. The system shown is a reverse return system with both supply and return sections. Closed systems are not affected by atmospheric pressure. The pump head of open systems include atmospheric pressure.
The piping system analysis uses a general tree structure. A pipe network can be either an open or closed network. To simplify analysis, a closed network can be divided into two open networks, one supply and one return, with the break between them at the terminal equipment. An open network can be analyzed as a tree with a single trunk fanning out into branches, subbranches, then leaves. Forward network analyses begin with the main pump tree trunk and work down each pipe section branch, sub-branch to a terminal equipment leaf. Reverse network analysis works from a terminal equipment to the pump.
The tree structure is handled as a number of linear linked lists, one for each junction in the pipe network. A pipe section is analyzed only once and and the sections are arranged in flow sequence into complete circuits. The pipe sections are linked into circuits. A supply section can have only one upstream section and any number of downstream sections. A return section can have only one downstream section and any number of upstream sections.
The network analysis to determine the fluid flow in each pipe section starts with each terminal equipment, a circuit end, and moves backwards, assigning the fluid quantity of the terminal equipment to all the sections in the circuit. Thermal analysis begins with the fluid temperature leaving the primary equipment section, and moves forward through each section in the circuit. The heat gains or losses and the temperature at the end of each section are calculated.
The temperature at the end of the last section in the circuit is the actual fluid temperature at the terminal equipment. The pressure analysis also moves forward through the network, starting at the pump section. The systems described in the next few pages use water, although brine and glycol may be substituted in the piping network system. A two-pipe direct return system illustrated in Fig.
The circuit analysis report will indicate the balancing requirements of each circuit. A two-pipe reverse return system illustrated in Fig. The length of straight piping through all the circuits is approximately the same. The unbalanced pressure heads are primarily due to equipment and fitting losses in the circuits. By definition, a secondary system is created when a booster pump is located in one of the sections. Since there are no booster pumps, the entire network is treated as one primary system.
Primary loops may be direct-return or reverse-return. They may be combined with one or more secondary loops that may all be direct-return, reverse-return, or a combination of the two.
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From Fig. The three-pipe system illustrated in Fig. The three-pipe system may be terminal mix or return mix. In both types, hot and cold water is provided at the terminal equipment. In the terminal mix system, hot and cold water are mixed at the terminal equipment to obtain the required equipment temperature. In the return mix system, each terminal equipment in the network uses either hot water or cold water and discharges into a common return system where mixing takes place.
The four-pipe system, illustrated in Fig. The four-pipe system satisfies the variations in the heating and cooling loads by providing independent sources of heating and cooling to the room or zone. During the period between seasons, any unit can be operated at maximum heating or maximum cooling. Density and kinematic viscosity are used in frictional loss calculations.
The specific heat is used in thermal analysis. In Fig. Glycol may be a different concentration of ethylene glycol or glycerol. Brine may be a different concentration of sodium chloride or calcium chloride.
Diesel fuel oil and gasoline may represent different blends of these liquids. The temperature range for water in Fig. An additional fluid property, saturation pressure, is included in this table and is included in the output reports for your information. The saturation pressures are not used in the calculations. A-2, A- 9, A to A, show the properties of steam.
Portions of this information can also be found in manufacturers' steam tables. The information in this table is used in the thermal analysis to determine the quality of steam. It can vary slightly with manufacturer. Inside roughness factors ft for open and closed piping systems are used in the Colebrook equation to calculate the frictional loss in the pipe. The minimum and maximum nominal diameter limits shown in Fig. These figures contain inside and outside diameters for each pipe material and each nominal size.
A blank in these tables indicates that the nominal size for that particular pipe material is not available. Roughness factors shown in Fig. Piping for open systems such as cooling tower water systems is subject to corrosion and scaling over a period of time. Open system roughness factors are included in the library, even though they are not a property of the pipe material but a function of the usage and age of the pipes.
The value shown in Fig. The Colebrook-White equation shown as equation 20 in Pipe Sizing was applied using trial values for the friction factor f until results approximated those of that chart.
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